Nymphenburg porcelain marks dating

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English Porcelain Manufactory Founded in Hungarian Porcelain Factory Founded in nymphenburg porcelain marks dating Austrian ceramics from the Art Nouveau, Deco period and beyond. Porcelain is also known as fine china after the country it first came from. The Chinese have produced porcelain for hundreds of years and it was first brought to Europe in the seventeenth century via nymphenburg porcelain marks dating trade route of the Dutch East India Company.

The Chinese manufacturers kept the production of porcelain secret and it became very coveted and represented great wealth and refinement in Europe. It was called white gold because of the wealth it brought to those areas. In the German state of Saxony Johann Botteger, an alchemist, experimented with the formula and with help of Dutch tile makers experienced in firing and painting, the first porcelain was made.

By the factory was well established at the Nmphenburg Palace. At first production was restricted to factories set up by the German aristocracy as the capital needed for the initial technology was so enormous. Every ruling prince wanted to produce his own porcelain. By the middle of the nineteenth century it is said there were 22 porcelain factories in Germany.

The two world wars and communism had a dramatic effect on the factories. Raw materials and trade were disrupted during the wars, the Jewish owned businesses were taken over by the Third Reich and after Eastern Germany came under Russian control. All production in Saxony became destined for the Eastern Block market until about the late fifties when there was an urgent need for foreign currency.

Following the fall of the iron curtain in the factories became free market enterprises and flourish today. Allach was dissolved in and Rosenthal was returned to family ownership in Only Nymphenburg has consistently produced the very high quality porcelain pieces from to the present day for the open market. For years the Porcelain Manufacturer Nymphenburg has been producing figures and objects of the finest quality in just one location, the Nymphenburg Palace.

No other factory in the World still manufactures all its products entirely by hand; no automated process is used, therefore enabling it to produce unequalled delicacy and quality pieces. The raw materials of kaolin, feldspar and quartz takes 2days to mix to the right consistency perfected by an age old recipe, it is not bought in as a semi ready mix as in commercial enterprises. The production process is complicated and time consuming and an art in itself. Once the mix has been refined it is pressed into slabs and stored until ready for processing, this takes nymphenburg porcelain marks dating years.

When ready it is sent to the potters shops. All other products are cast in plaster moulds. There nymphenburg porcelain marks dating thousands of different moulds kept in the moulding shop; each one is destroyed after just fifteen casts. Slip is poured into the mould and left to set. Each figure can be made of many different pieces from numerous moulds. Once they are dried the potter assembles the pieces by hand using slip and a scalpel. Finally the details are added, any leaves and flowers, hands and facial expressions are added by the artist using his or her scalpel.

Each piece is fired at least twice if not three, four or five times at different temperatures. Following an initial low temperature firing a thin glaze is added and then fired again before it can go for decoration. Underglaze painting is largely used on small figurines, it is best done to emphasise fur and feathers or a nymphenburg porcelain marks dating dressed figure.

Finely graded shades of colour are brought out through various types of glaze. On glazed pieces, artists work without templates and an intricate item can take up to 3 weeks to paint. Painting skills are passed on through word of mouth and training an apprentice may take up to 15 years. Powder paints from a library of over 15, can be manufactured in the laboratory at Nymphenburg and these are then mixed with turpentine, rose and lavender oils before being applied.

Paints nymphenburg porcelain marks dating fused with the glaze during firing, changing finished colour significantly. Finishing can be with either platinum or 24ct gold. After the final firing the gilded areas are dull and need buffing. The final product is pure white translucent porcelain which contrasts with bright paints and polished gilding. The original Hutschenreuther porcelain company was opened in in the small town of Hohenburg in Bavaria.

Carolus Magnus Hutschenreuther,had been working for the Wallendorf factory and wanted to open the first privately owned porcelain factory in Germany. His aim was to mbm acronym dating porcelain second to none and to enhance the quality of his product, Carolus solicited artists, nymphenburg porcelain marks dating, and sculptors from across the European continent.

Primarily focusing on quality and design, Hutschenreuther grew into a competitive firm that produced dinnerware services ideal for fine dining. Under the direction of his son Lorenz, a second factory was established in in the neighbouring town of Selb. Lorenz marketed his dinnerware services aggressively and the Hutschenreuther in Selb became the more notable name as a result of its business savvy managers.

Lorenz had not partnered with his father and the two companies would remain fully independent and in open competition with each other for more than a century. Inafter acquiring the Paul Muller company, Hutschenreuther of Selb began producing figurines. In the sculptor Carl Werner was given control of the art department in Selb and working alongside Karl Tutter, they were to produce some of the most desirable figurines to come out of Germany during the twentieth century.

Bythe company had expanded to include several more factories. After more than a century of competition, the two companies became one. The newly united company continued producing porcelain figurines and fine bone china under a new lion trademark. Since the Hutschenreuther company became a part of the Rosenthal group. If Meissen and Nymphenburg were the factories born of the aristocracy, Rosenthal came from the industrial revolution and that born to the middle classes.

How to identify collectable British pottery and ceramic factory marks

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